COVID-19 vaccine

COVID-19 vaccination doses administered per 100 people, as of 1 March 2021
Map of countries by approval status
  Approved for general use, mass vaccination underway
  EUA (or equivalent) granted, mass vaccination underway
  EUA granted, limited vaccination
  Approved for general use, mass vaccination planned
  EUA granted, mass vaccination planned
  EUA pending

A COVID‑19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19). Prior to the COVID‑19 pandemic, there was established body of knowledge about the structure and function of coronaviruses causing diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which enabled accelerated development of various vaccine technologies during early 2020.[1] On 10 January 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence data was shared through GISAID, and by 19 March, the global pharmaceutical industry announced a major commitment to address COVID-19.[2]

As of February 2021, 66 vaccine candidates are in clinical research, including 17 in Phase I trials, 23 in Phase I–II trials, 6 in Phase II trials, and 20 in Phase III trials.[3] Trials for four other candidates were terminated.[3] In Phase III trials, several COVID‑19 vaccines demonstrate efficacy as high as 95% in preventing symptomatic COVID‑19 infections. As of February 2021, eleven vaccines are authorized by at least one national regulatory authority for public use: two RNA vaccines (the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine and the Moderna vaccine), four conventional inactivated vaccines (BBIBP-CorV, Covaxin, CoronaVac, and CoviVac), four viral vector vaccines (Sputnik V, the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine, Convidicea, and the Johnson & Johnson vaccine), and one peptide vaccine (EpiVacCorona).[3]

Many countries have implemented phased distribution plans that prioritize those at highest risk of complications, such as the elderly, and those at high risk of exposure and transmission, such as healthcare workers.[4] As of 5 March 2021, 291.93 million doses of COVID‑19 vaccine have been administered worldwide based on official reports from national health agencies.[5] AstraZeneca-Oxford anticipates producing 3 billion doses in 2021, Pfizer-BioNTech 1.3 billion doses, and Sputnik V, Sinopharm, Sinovac, and Johnson & Johnson 1 billion doses each. Moderna targets producing 600 million doses and Convidicea 500 million doses in 2021.[6][7] By December 2020, more than 10 billion vaccine doses had been preordered by countries,[8] with about half of the doses purchased by high-income countries comprising 14% of the world's population.[9]

  1. ^ Li YD, Chi WY, Su JH, Ferrall L, Hung CF, Wu TC (December 2020). "Coronavirus vaccine development: from SARS and MERS to COVID-19". Journal of Biomedical Science. 27 (1): 104. doi:10.1186/s12929-020-00695-2. PMC 7749790. PMID 33341119.
  2. ^ Padilla, Teodoro (24 February 2021). "No one is safe unless everyone is safe". BusinessWorld. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  3. ^ a b c "COVID-19 vaccine development pipeline (Refresh URL to update)". Vaccine Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. 18 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  4. ^ Beaumont, Peter (18 November 2020). "Covid-19 vaccine: who are countries prioritising for first doses?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  5. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations – Statistics and Research". Our World in Data. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  6. ^ "Which companies will likely produce the most COVID-19 vaccine in 2021?". Pharmaceutical Processing World. 5 February 2021. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  7. ^ "China can hit 500-mln-dose annual capacity of CanSinoBIO COVID-19 vaccine this year". Yahoo! Sport. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  8. ^ Mullard, Asher (30 November 2020). "How COVID vaccines are being divvied up around the world Canada leads the pack in terms of doses secured per capita". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03370-6. PMID 33257891. S2CID 227246811. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  9. ^ So AD, Woo J (December 2020). "Reserving coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines for global access: cross sectional analysis". BMJ. 371: m4750. doi:10.1136/bmj.m4750. ISSN 1756-1833. PMC 7735431. PMID 33323376.

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