Coronavirus

Orthocoronavirinae
Coronaviruses 004 lores.jpg
Transmission electron micrograph of Avian coronavirus
Illustration of a SARS-CoV-2 virion
Illustration of a coronavirus[2]
  Red: spike proteins (S)
  Yellow: envelope proteins (E)
  Orange: membrane proteins (M)
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Pisuviricota
Class: Pisoniviricetes
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Subfamily: Orthocoronavirinae
Genera[1]
Synonyms[3][4]
  • Coronavirinae

A coronavirus is any of a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the common cold (which is also caused by other viruses, predominantly rhinoviruses), while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. In cows and pigs they cause diarrhea, while in mice they cause hepatitis and encephalomyelitis.

Coronaviruses constitute the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria.[5][4] They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry.[6] The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, one of the largest among RNA viruses.[7] They have characteristic club-shaped spikes that project from their surface, which in electron micrographs create an image reminiscent of the solar corona, from which their name derives.[8]

  1. ^ "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Archived from the original on 2018-03-04. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  2. ^ Giaimo C (2020-04-01). "The Spiky Blob Seen Around the World". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2020-04-02. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  3. ^ "2017.012-015S" (xlsx). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Archived from the original on 2019-05-14. Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  4. ^ a b "ICTV Taxonomy history: Orthocoronavirinae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 2020-01-24.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference FanZhao2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Cherry J, Demmler-Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ (2017). Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. PT6615. ISBN 978-0-323-39281-5.
  7. ^ Woo PC, Huang Y, Lau SK, Yuen KY (August 2010). "Coronavirus genomics and bioinformatics analysis". Viruses. 2 (8): 1804–20. doi:10.3390/v2081803. PMC 3185738. PMID 21994708. Coronaviruses possess the largest genomes [26.4 kb (ThCoV HKU12) to 31.7 kb (SW1)] among all known RNA viruses (Figure 1) [2,13,16].
  8. ^ Almeida JD, Berry DM, Cunningham CH, Hamre D, Hofstad MS, Mallucci L, McIntosh K, Tyrrell DA (November 1968). "Virology: Coronaviruses". Nature. 220 (5168): 650. Bibcode:1968Natur.220..650.. doi:10.1038/220650b0. [T]here is also a characteristic "fringe" of projections 200 A long, which are rounded or petal shaped ... This appearance, recalling the solar corona, is shared by mouse hepatitis virus and several viruses recently recovered from man, namely strain B814, 229E and several others.

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