Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virions with visible coronae
Transmission electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virions with visible coronae
Illustration of a SARS-CoV-2 virion
Illustration of a SARS-CoV-2 virion[1]
  Red protrusions: spike proteins (S)[1]
  Grey coating: the envelope, composed mainly of lipids, which can be destroyed with alcohol or soap[1]
  Yellow deposits: envelope proteins (E)[1]
  Orange deposits: membrane proteins (M)[1]
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Pisuviricota
Class: Pisoniviricetes
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Betacoronavirus
Subgenus: Sarbecovirus
Species:
Virus:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Variants
Synonyms
  • 2019-nCoV

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[2][3] is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.[4] Colloquially known as simply the coronavirus, it was previously referred to by its provisional name, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[5][6][7][8] and has also been called human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 or hCoV-19).[9][10][11][12] The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020.[13][14]

SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus[15][16] (and hence Baltimore class IV[17]) that is contagious in humans.[18] As described by the US National Institutes of Health, it is the successor to SARS-CoV-1,[11][19] the virus that caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak.

Taxonomically, SARS-CoV-2 is a virus of the species severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV).[2] It is believed to have zoonotic origins and has close genetic similarity to bat coronaviruses, suggesting it emerged from a bat-borne virus.[20][21][22][10] Research is ongoing as to whether SARS-CoV-2 came directly from bats or indirectly through any intermediate hosts.[23][24] The virus shows little genetic diversity, indicating that the spillover event introducing SARS-CoV-2 to humans is likely to have occurred in late 2019.[25]

Epidemiological studies estimate that each infection results in 5.7 new ones when no members of the community are immune and no preventive measures are taken.[26] The virus primarily spreads between people through close contact and via respiratory droplets produced from coughs or sneezes.[27][28] It mainly enters human cells by binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[20][29][30][31]

  1. ^ a b c d e Cite error: The named reference NYT-SpikyBlob was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference CoronavirusStudyGroup was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference BBC-Named was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Zimmer, Carl (26 February 2021). "The Secret Life of a Coronavirus - An oily, 100-nanometer-wide bubble of genes has killed more than two million people and reshaped the world. Scientists don't quite know what to make of it". Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference WHO21Jan2020 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference CDC-nCoV was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference CDCAbout was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference Zoonotic was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Proximal was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NEJM-Stability was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference China natl GeneBank was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference WHO-PHEIC was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference WHOPandemic was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference gisaid was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference Machhi2020Sep was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference Baltimore 1971 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference Chan24Jan2020 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference nihSARSr-CoV was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference NatureZhou was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference LancetNowcasting was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference MedVirEvolution was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference WHO-SR22 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference DWPangolins was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  25. ^ Cite error: The named reference early was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  26. ^ Cite error: The named reference high contagiousness was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  27. ^ Cite error: The named reference WHO2020QA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  28. ^ Cite error: The named reference CDCTrans was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  29. ^ Cite error: The named reference NatMicLetko was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ Cite error: The named reference HoffmanCell was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  31. ^ Cite error: The named reference NG-20200415 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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